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|Title: ||Proposta de optimização do sistema de vistas do Parque da Pena em Sintra|
|Authors: ||Cunha, Maria de Castello Branco Arriaga|
|Advisor: ||Azambuja, Sónia Maria Loução Martins Talhé|
|Keywords: ||Parque da Pena|
D. Fernando II
|Issue Date: ||2010|
|Abstract: ||This paper is about to study the Views System of the Pena Park in Sintra, Portugal.
This Park had started to be built in 1838 when Fernando of Saxe Coburgo Gotha came to Portugal
to marry the queen, Maria II. Fernando II, who later also became king of Portugal, after the death of the
queen in 1853, was born in 1816 in Germany. In his childhood he got to know about the ideas of the
romantic German philosophy which were absolutely in expansion at that time in Germany. This philosophy
defends that Nature is the material aspect of God and that man needs it to his own realization as a human
being. The romantic philosophy also appreciates the dark side of things such as the night, the death, the
moon as signs of the transcendental and as a relation of the celestial and the terrestrial.
The many authors, who talk about this subject, as Nature lovers, proclaim the proliferation of the
building of Gardens and Parks. Goethe is the prime example, who built his own garden in Weimar. The
many parks in which D. Fernando grew up, such as Reinhardsbrunn, Rosenau and Stolzenfels certainly
influenced his character.
When D. Fernando came to Portugal these ideas were absolutely unknown. The French Invasions
and the Civil War left the country ruined and Art was left abandoned. Besides his military and governmental
function the king also found time to do what he really liked: the growing of plants, and the exercise of art asa designer, painter and singer. But the masterwork of the king would be the construction of a German
Romantic Park in Portuguese land.
It was during the honey-moon passed in the Sintra Vila, that D. Fernando first saw the Convent of
Our Lady of Pena in the top of the mountain of Sintra. He immediately recalled the Castles in Germany with
their enormous parks and had the idea of building one with revivals of the Moorish and Neo-Manuelino
styles. The Park would be, as the German ones, a translation of the Sublime. This idea is based in that
the beauty isn’t the only way of causing pleasure, but also what is usually taken as ugly or dangerous can
cause a double sensation of horror and pleasure to the soul, which is highly appreciated by the romantics.
Situations such as cliffs, abrupt descents, caves, waterfalls and wild vegetation are always present in the
So, the Pena Park was built since 1838 till the death of D. Fernando in 1885. It means that the
king was constantly planting new plants or building new constructions. Many of these constructions were
located in places obviously placed to enjoy the views. After the death of D. Fernando, the park was
sometimes left abandoned which resulted in the wild vegetation simply obstructing the possible views in the
Park. As the spirit of the Florence Charter, these views should be maintained as an element of an historic
After an analysis of the views it can be concluded that there is a focal element in the Park which
is the Palace. This is explained by the intention, full of meaning of the mentor to relate this place with the
Mont Salvat and the Klingsor Gardens. Several views were considered in the Park, mainly the ones from the
belvederes or from stopping places, but also the ones that are in high places or in priority walking tracks. The
views that were considered in the Park are: 1 – The Temple of Columns above the Palace; 2 – The Temple of
Columns above the Giant; 3 – The track between the Temple of Columns and the Giant; 4 – The throne of
the Queen above the Palace; 5 – point 1 – The course nearby the fetus cultures; 5 – point 2 - The course
nearby the foetus cultures; 6 – The course to the High Cross above the Palace.
The proposal of intervention goes through the cut of the vegetation which is closing some view,
because the conduction of the plant was not appropriated to let the view opened. The new views, as an
opened place in the middle of the wild vegetation will make a sensation of contrast, and even of the «ha-ha»
which works like a surprise effect, very proper of the sublime idea present in the Romantic Gardens.|
|Description: ||Mestrado em Arquitectura Paisagista - Instituto Superior de Agronomia|
|Appears in Collections:||BISA - Dissertações de Mestrado / Master Thesis|
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