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|Title: ||Estudo da possibilidade de utilização de resíduos de origem agro-pecuária compostados em substitutição de turfa na produção de viveiros hortícolas|
|Authors: ||Carvalho, Rita Margarida Sintra|
|Advisor: ||Torres, Maria Odete Pereira|
Duarte, Elizabeth Fernandes de Almeida
|Issue Date: ||2009|
|Abstract: ||Peat is intensively used in horticultural nurseries. Yet, nowadays is fundamental to
consider the environments aspects and reduce its exploration, besides the reduction of the
costs of the nurseries with this input.
Based on these concerns it was decided to re-use the organic residues from a
horticultural nursery and from a dairy farm. Four composts, A, B, C and D were produced
from dry cattle manure, thin sawdust, animal food waste, pieces of garlic and onion raw and
peat and horticultural plant waste.
Compost A was obtained with 24 kg of each referred residues. Compost B derived
from the mixture of 28 kg of cattle manure, sawdust, peat and plants waste and 18 kg of
garlic/onion raw and animal food wastes. To produce compost C, 32 kg of cattle manure,
sawdust, peat and plants wastes and 12 kg of garlic/onion raw and animal food wastes were
mixed. 40 kg of cattle manure, sawdust and peat and plants wastes were used to prepare
The composting process of the piles lasted for 108 days. Temperature was daily
measured in order to control the need to revolve and water the pile. Several samples were
collected in different stages of the process, which revealed that all the composts obtained
had a higher pH and electric conductivity and higher levels of the majority of mineral
elements, compared with peat. Peat showed higher values of organic matter, total carbon
and C/N and C/P ratios.
Germination and growing tests are commonly used to evaluate compost maturation.
Immature composts can cause phytotoxicity, reducing germination and plant growing.
For each final compost A, B, C and D, four different proportions of compost/peat -
25% of compost and 75% of peat (25/75), 50% of compost and 50% of peat (50/50), 75% of
compost and 25% of peat (75/25) and 100% of compost (100) - were prepared to assess its
quality through germination and growing tests carried with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Peat
was also included as a control.
Two hundred and ninety four plants were randomly grown in the nursery for five
weeks, including one control, and four compost/peat proportions for each compost A, B, C
Some plants germinated six days after sowing, for the mixtures 25/75 B, 25/75 D,
50/50 D and 75/25 D, and in the seventh day all mixtures showed germinated plants,
suggesting the maturation of the composts.When plants reached the ideal size for plantation, five weeks after sowing, twenty
plants from each proportion of compost/peat as well as the control, were collected, weighed
and analyzed. Plants from portions 75/25 and 100 of all composts were smaller and
yellowish, as a result of high electric conductivity of growing media.
Plant dry matter accumulation from the proportions 50/50 A, 25/75 B, 50/50 B, 25/75
C, 50/50 C and 25/75 D and from peat was similar. On the contrary, higher levels of all
composts led to plants of poor quality, not suitable for the market.
Producing healthy plants is an important goal in nurseries. To verify if the plants
produced in the nursery, succeed after plantation, thirty six lettuce plants from the mixtures
25/75 and 50/50 from each compost were planted in a greenhouse. After nine weeks, the
plants had already reached the size to be sold.
The results obtained in this study suggested that it was possible to replace 50% peat
used in the nursery, by composts produced in the explorations with the residues, to reduce
the amount of peat to the half, with both environmental and economical benefits.------------------------------------------A turfa é utilizada intensivamente nos viveiros hortícolas, mas nos dias de hoje é
fundamental considerar os aspectos ambientais e reduzir a sua exploração, para além de
diminuir os custos dos viveiros com esta matéria-prima.
Com base nestas preocupações decidiu-se reutilizar os resíduos de um viveiro
hortícola e de uma vacaria. Produziram-se quatro compostos, A, B, C e D, a partir de
estrume de bovino seco, serradura fina, sobras de comida dos animais, cortes da rama de
alho e cebola e desperdícios de turfa e plântulas hortícolas.
Com cada um dos compostos foram preparadas quatro proporções de
composto/turfa de - 25% de composto e 75% de turfa, 50% de composto e 50% de turfa,
75% de composto e 25% de turfa e 100% de composto -, para avaliar a qualidade destes
através de ensaios de germinação e crescimento de alface (Lactuca sativa L.)
Este estudo permitiu comprovar que é possível substituir 50% da turfa utilizada no
viveiro, por composto formado a partir de resíduos existentes nas explorações onde este
trabalho se realizou. Tal poderá, assim, reduzir o consumo e os custos da turfa para metade,
com as vantagens de índole ambiental e também económica, subjacentes à realização do
estudo ora apresentado.|
|Description: ||Mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica - Instituto Superior de Agronomia|
|Appears in Collections:||BISA - Dissertações de Mestrado / Master Thesis|
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