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|Title: ||Mentha cervina L.: insectos e fungos associados. Propriedades insecticidas do óleo essêncial|
|Authors: ||Belchior, Sara Inês Pereira|
|Advisor: ||Monteiro, Ana Maria da Silva|
Silva, José Carlos Franco Santos
|Keywords: ||Mentha pulegium|
|Issue Date: ||2009|
|Abstract: ||Mentha L. is a genus of aromatic perennial herbs belonging to the family Lamiaceae
distributed mostly in temperate and sub-temperate regions of the world. Different species of mint are
used for their medicinal and aromatic properties, and cultivated for their essential oils and
monoterpenes components of the oil, for use in food, flavour, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
Pests and pathogens of Mentha may cause substantial damage to the crop and considerable
loss in oil yield.
The concern about the negative effects caused by synthetic pesticides such environmental
pollution, development of phenomena of resistance at treated insect populations and toxicity at
different trophic levels led to a search for natural and environmentally friendly products. Plant extracts
can be an alternative for a pest management with little harmfulness to environment.
The present study was aimed at the repellent/insecticidal properties of Mentha cervina L.
essential oil (EO) against ants, the identification of the insects associated to M. cervina and M.
pulegium L., and fungi associated to M. cervina.
The essential oils were obtained by hidrodestillation by using Clevenger apparatus of dried
plant material. Two species of ants - Tapinoma nigerrimum Nylander and Aphaenogaster senilis Mayr
- were used to study the repellent/insecticidal properties of M. cervina oil. The experimental unit
corresponded to a system of two compartments separated by a PVC pipe containing a layer of filter
paper dampened with EO solutions. Groups of 10 insects per replicate were placed in one of the
compartments. The opposite compartment contained food. This allowed the insects to come into
contact with the treated papers. Four concentrations were tested and each was replicated three times
for T. nigerrimum and five times for A. senilis. EO was dissolved in ethanol and prepared with distilled
water with different concentrations: 2,5; 5;0, 10,0 and 20,0 μg/cm2. Distilled water and 1% (v/v)
ethanol (96%) were used as control. The effects on T. nigerrimum mortality were evaluated after 24 to
144 hours. Concentration OE 2,5 μg/cm2 provided 70% mortality after 72 hours. The effects on A.
senilis were evaluated after 24 to 196 hours. Concentration OE 2,5 μg/cm2 provided 72% mortality
after 192 hours. Percent mortality data were analysed by ANOVA (SPSS v. 15.0), Tukey’s test was
used to compare the difference between treatments.
The plant materials studied were collected from seedbeds located at the Botanic Park of
Tapada da Ajuda at the Agronomic Institut of the Technical University of Lisbon. In order to deepen
knowledge about insects associated to M. cervina and M. pulegium, samples were surveyed from 39
accessions of M. cervina and 3 accessions of M. pulegium, in July, September, October and
November 2008, weekly. The specimens collected were preserved in 70% ethanol for identification. In
all, 604 insects were identified comprising 4 different orders and 15 families. The higher number of
insects found belongs to the orders Coleoptera and Hemiptera. Mites were identified in 12 accessions
of M. cervina, comprising 4 families and four species.
In order to study the fungi associated to M. cervina, 30 accessions were selected. Samples
were surveyed between October and November 2007, by visual observation of dried and/or necrotic
plants. The surface sterilized roots and stems segments were evenly spaced in Petri dishes containingpotato dextrose agar (PDA) and potassium thiocyanate (KCNS 5%) medium. With the identification of
the isolates, 12 genera were identified. The most predominant genera were Alternaria e Fusarium.
These two genera and the species Colletotrichum coccodes and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are cited in
the literature as pathogenic to Mentha species.--------------------------------------Os objectivos do presente trabalho consistiram em determinar as propriedades
repelentes/insecticidas do óleo essencial (OE) de Mentha cervina L. em formigas e em identificar, em
cultura, os insectos e os fungos associados a M. cervina. Procedeu-se ainda ao levantamento de
insectos associados a algumas populações M. pulegium L., também em cultura.
Nos estudos sobre as propriedades repelentes/insecticidas em formigas das espécies
Tapinoma nigerrimum Nylander e Aphaenogaster senilis Mayr utilizaram-se as seguintes
concentrações de OE: 2,5, 5,0, 10,0 e 20,0 μg/cm2. Verificou-se algum efeito de repelência nas
concentrações intermédias, os valores de mortalidade mais elevados ocorreram na concentração
As amostragens dos insectos associados a M. cervina e foram realizadas nos meses de
Julho, Setembro, Outubro e Novembro de 2008, semanalmente. A maioria dos insectos identificados
pertence às ordens Coleoptera e Hemiptera. Ácaros também foram identificados em M. cervina,
pertencentes a quatro famílias e quatro espécies.
O levantamento dos fungos associados a M. cervina foi efectuado durante os meses de
Outubro e Novembro de 2007. Nos géneros de fungos identificados predominaram Alternaria e
Fusarium. Estes dois géneros e as espécies Colletotrichum coccodes e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum estão
referenciadas como doenças de Mentha spp..|
|Description: ||Mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica - Instituto Superior de Agronomia|
|Appears in Collections:||BISA - Dissertações de Mestrado / Master Thesis|
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