Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.5/9237
Título: Por montanhas e vales: dinâmicas de inovação e catching-up regional
Autor: Ferreira, Vitor Hugo dos Santos
Orientador: Godinho, Manuel Mira
Palavras-chave: Inovação regional
patentes
empreendedorismo
KIBS
crescimento económico regional
marcas
regional innovation
patents
entrepreneurship
KIBS
trademarks
regional economic growth
Data de Defesa: Dez-2010
Editora: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Citação: Ferreira, Vítor Hugo dos Santos (2010). " Por montanhas e vales: dinâmicas de inovação e catching-up regional". Tese de Doutoramento, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão.
Resumo: This thesis consists of a series of essays focusing upon regional and national differences and variations in terms of their innovation and growth performances, while also approaching the role played by intellectual property rights (IPR), knowledge intensive business services (KIBS), entrepreneurship and other traditional factors that influence innovation. The title of the thesis reflects the enormous variation of economic performance across regions and countries worldwide. Throughout the five essays of the thesis we attempt to highlight the most important forces that might be contributing to the reduction or widening of the existing gaps in economic performance. In our first essay, we argue that the "missing link" between economic growth and the production of knowledge is entrepreneurship as it enables new knowledge to be turned into economic valuable knowledge that generate commercial opportunities. We survey this concept and adopt a recently proposed model to demonstrate that a linkage between regional growth and entrepreneurship exists and apply it to Southern Europe (NUTS 2 regions in Italy, Portugal and Spain). We establish how any policy designed to bring about economic growth has to contend with the promotion of entrepreneurship as new firms are vital instruments in the commercial exploitation of knowledge. Thus, entrepreneurship plays a vital role in closing the gap between poor and rich regions within Southern Europe. The second essay puts forward a methodology for the construction of an innovation performance measurement tool for the 30 NUTS 3 regions in Portugal. This measurement is based upon the aggregation of a set of indicators collectively understood as representative of the "innovation phenomenon". The task proposed bears relevance across two distinct dimensions: in methodological terms conceptualising just what might be accepted as innovation within these spatial units, and, in practical terms given it results in identifying the relative positioning of each territorial unit. In general terms, we conclude that innovation in Portugal congregates around the main urban and industrial centres (Grande Lisboa and Grande Porto). Nevertheless, there are also other regions where efforts in terms of R&D investment and high technology production have been made and proven to be case studies of success, triggering a possible catching-up dynamic (Alentejo Central and Baixo Vouga). In our third essay, we follow various streams in the literature and estimate a knowledge/ innovation production function based on various determinants such as degree of urbanization, research and development (R&D) intensity, the structure of human resources, institutions and infrastructures and the existence of KIBS and technology companies. We use a composite measure of innovation as our dependent variable (using patent and trademark application counts), emphasizing different forms of intellectual capital as the outcome of the innovation process. This analysis is done on a regional scale, at the NUTS 3 level in Portugal. This micro-sphere allows us to discern the importance of local factors in innovation and, more specifically, the role of KIBS entrepreneurship as a key factor in generating innovation and as a means of transforming knowledge into marketable innovation. Further it allows us to highlight the importance of having trademarks as an output of our function. Deploying several econometric approaches, we manage to confirm the importance of KIBS, entrepreneurship, human capital, geographical location and good institutions as the main drivers of regional innovation in Portugal. The fourth essay studies the determinants of regional innovation in the European Union (EU) NUTS 2 regions through a knowledge production function approach that adopts a set of explanatory variables reflecting various factors linked to innovation systems. In order to measure regional innovation in the EU we build a composite variable, using trademark applications and patent applications, both at the NUTS 2 level. Our results demonstrate that this measure may be appropriate to identifying innovation that is not as technologically intensive as that captured by patent counts. Furthermore, our analysis reveals that traditional factors (such as business R&D, schooling and wealth) have a statistically significant effect on the production of innovation (measured through patents and trademarks), while at the same time entrepreneurship in the KIBS sector also has a significant role. In our last essay we survey the evidence behind the IPR boom in China and India, and its link to innovation. In terms of trademark applications lodged with domestic IP offices in 2009, the evidence demonstrates that, worldwide, China now ranks 1st and India 5th, while for patent filings China ranks 3 rd and India 9th. This performance is remarkable as both 4to be case studies of success, triggering a possible catching-up dynamic (Alentejo Central and Baixo Vouga). In our third essay, we follow various streams in the literature and estimate a knowledge/ innovation production function based on various determinants such as degree of urbanization, research and development (R&D) intensity, the structure of human resources, institutions and infrastructures and the existence of KIBS and technology companies. We use a composite measure of innovation as our dependent variable (using patent and trademark application counts), emphasizing different forms of intellectual capital as the outcome of the innovation process. This analysis is done on a regional scale, at the NUTS 3 level in Portugal. This micro-sphere allows us to discern the importance of local factors in innovation and, more specifically, the role of KIBS entrepreneurship as a key factor in generating innovation and as a means of transforming knowledge into marketable innovation. Further it allows us to highlight the importance of having trademarks as an output of our function. Deploying several econometric approaches, we manage to confirm the importance of KIBS, entrepreneurship, human capital, geographical location and good institutions as the main drivers of regional innovation in Portugal. The fourth essay studies the determinants of regional innovation in the European Union (EU) NUTS 2 regions through a knowledge production function approach that adopts a set of explanatory variables reflecting various factors linked to innovation systems. In order to measure regional innovation in the EU we build a composite variable, using trademark applications and patent applications, both at the NUTS 2 level. Our results demonstrate that this measure may be appropriate to identifying innovation that is not as technologically intensive as that captured by patent counts. Furthermore, our analysis reveals that traditional factors (such as business R&D, schooling and wealth) have a statistically significant effect on the production of innovation (measured through patents and trademarks), while at the same time entrepreneurship in the KIBS sector also has a significant role. In our last essay we survey the evidence behind the IPR boom in China and India, and its link to innovation. In terms of trademark applications lodged with domestic IP offices in 2009, the evidence demonstrates that, worldwide, China now ranks 1st and India 5th, while for patent filings China ranks 3 rd and India 9th. This performance is remarkable as both to be case studies of success, triggering a possible catching-up dynamic (Alentejo Central and Baixo Vouga). In our third essay, we follow various streams in the literature and estimate a knowledge/ innovation production function based on various determinants such as degree of urbanization, research and development (R&D) intensity, the structure of human resources, institutions and infrastructures and the existence of KIBS and technology companies. We use a composite measure of innovation as our dependent variable (using patent and trademark application counts), emphasizing different forms of intellectual capital as the outcome of the innovation process. This analysis is done on a regional scale, at the NUTS 3 level in Portugal. This micro-sphere allows us to discern the importance of local factors in innovation and, more specifically, the role of KIBS entrepreneurship as a key factor in generating innovation and as a means of transforming knowledge into marketable innovation. Further it allows us to highlight the importance of having trademarks as an output of our function. Deploying several econometric approaches, we manage to confirm the importance of KIBS, entrepreneurship, human capital, geographical location and good institutions as the main drivers of regional innovation in Portugal. The fourth essay studies the determinants of regional innovation in the European Union (EU) NUTS 2 regions through a knowledge production function approach that adopts a set of explanatory variables reflecting various factors linked to innovation systems. In order to measure regional innovation in the EU we build a composite variable, using trademark applications and patent applications, both at the NUTS 2 level. Our results demonstrate that this measure may be appropriate to identifying innovation that is not as technologically intensive as that captured by patent counts. Furthermore, our analysis reveals that traditional factors (such as business R&D, schooling and wealth) have a statistically significant effect on the production of innovation (measured through patents and trademarks), while at the same time entrepreneurship in the KIBS sector also has a significant role. In our last essay we survey the evidence behind the IPR boom in China and India, and its link to innovation. In terms of trademark applications lodged with domestic IP offices in 2009, the evidence demonstrates that, worldwide, China now ranks 1st and India 5th, while for patent filings China ranks 3 rd and India 9th. This performance is remarkable as both to be case studies of success, triggering a possible catching-up dynamic (Alentejo Central and Baixo Vouga). In our third essay, we follow various streams in the literature and estimate a knowledge/ innovation production function based on various determinants such as degree of urbanization, research and development (R&D) intensity, the structure of human resources, institutions and infrastructures and the existence of KIBS and technology companies. We use a composite measure of innovation as our dependent variable (using patent and trademark application counts), emphasizing different forms of intellectual capital as the outcome of the innovation process. This analysis is done on a regional scale, at the NUTS 3 level in Portugal. This micro-sphere allows us to discern the importance of local factors in innovation and, more specifically, the role of KIBS entrepreneurship as a key factor in generating innovation and as a means of transforming knowledge into marketable innovation. Further it allows us to highlight the importance of having trademarks as an output of our function. Deploying several econometric approaches, we manage to confirm the importance of KIBS, entrepreneurship, human capital, geographical location and good institutions as the main drivers of regional innovation in Portugal. The fourth essay studies the determinants of regional innovation in the European Union (EU) NUTS 2 regions through a knowledge production function approach that adopts a set of explanatory variables reflecting various factors linked to innovation systems. In order to measure regional innovation in the EU we build a composite variable, using trademark applications and patent applications, both at the NUTS 2 level. Our results demonstrate that this measure may be appropriate to identifying innovation that is not as technologically intensive as that captured by patent counts. Furthermore, our analysis reveals that traditional factors (such as business R&D, schooling and wealth) have a statistically significant effect on the production of innovation (measured through patents and trademarks), while at the same time entrepreneurship in the KIBS sector also has a significant role. In our last essay we survey the evidence behind the IPR boom in China and India, and its link to innovation. In terms of trademark applications lodged with domestic IP offices in 2009, the evidence demonstrates that, worldwide, China now ranks 1st and India 5th, while for patent filings China ranks 3 rd and India 9th. This performance is remarkable as both to be case studies of success, triggering a possible catching-up dynamic (Alentejo Central and Baixo Vouga). In our third essay, we follow various streams in the literature and estimate a knowledge/ innovation production function based on various determinants such as degree of urbanization, research and development (R&D) intensity, the structure of human resources, institutions and infrastructures and the existence of KIBS and technology companies. We use a composite measure of innovation as our dependent variable (using patent and trademark application counts), emphasizing different forms of intellectual capital as the outcome of the innovation process. This analysis is done on a regional scale, at the NUTS 3 level in Portugal. This micro-sphere allows us to discern the importance of local factors in innovation and, more specifically, the role of KIBS entrepreneurship as a key factor in generating innovation and as a means of transforming knowledge into marketable innovation. Further it allows us to highlight the importance of having trademarks as an output of our function. Deploying several econometric approaches, we manage to confirm the importance of KIBS, entrepreneurship, human capital, geographical location and good institutions as the main drivers of regional innovation in Portugal. The fourth essay studies the determinants of regional innovation in the European Union (EU) NUTS 2 regions through a knowledge production function approach that adopts a set of explanatory variables reflecting various factors linked to innovation systems. In order to measure regional innovation in the EU we build a composite variable, using trademark applications and patent applications, both at the NUTS 2 level. Our results demonstrate that this measure may be appropriate to identifying innovation that is not as technologically intensive as that captured by patent counts. Furthermore, our analysis reveals that traditional factors (such as business R&D, schooling and wealth) have a statistically significant effect on the production of innovation (measured through patents and trademarks), while at the same time entrepreneurship in the KIBS sector also has a significant role. In our last essay we survey the evidence behind the IPR boom in China and India, and its link to innovation. In terms of trademark applications lodged with domestic IP offices in 2009, the evidence demonstrates that, worldwide, China now ranks 1st and India 5th, while for patent filings China ranks 3 rd and India 9th. This performance is remarkable as both to be case studies of success, triggering a possible catching-up dynamic (Alentejo Central and Baixo Vouga). In our third essay, we follow various streams in the literature and estimate a knowledge/ innovation production function based on various determinants such as degree of urbanization, research and development (R&D) intensity, the structure of human resources, institutions and infrastructures and the existence of KIBS and technology companies. We use a composite measure of innovation as our dependent variable (using patent and trademark application counts), emphasizing different forms of intellectual capital as the outcome of the innovation process. This analysis is done on a regional scale, at the NUTS 3 level in Portugal. This micro-sphere allows us to discern the importance of local factors in innovation and, more specifically, the role of KIBS entrepreneurship as a key factor in generating innovation and as a means of transforming knowledge into marketable innovation. Further it allows us to highlight the importance of having trademarks as an output of our function. Deploying several econometric approaches, we manage to confirm the importance of KIBS, entrepreneurship, human capital, geographical location and good institutions as the main drivers of regional innovation in Portugal. The fourth essay studies the determinants of regional innovation in the European Union (EU) NUTS 2 regions through a knowledge production function approach that adopts a set of explanatory variables reflecting various factors linked to innovation systems. In order to measure regional innovation in the EU we build a composite variable, using trademark applications and patent applications, both at the NUTS 2 level. Our results demonstrate that this measure may be appropriate to identifying innovation that is not as technologically intensive as that captured by patent counts. Furthermore, our analysis reveals that traditional factors (such as business R&D, schooling and wealth) have a statistically significant effect on the production of innovation (measured through patents and trademarks), while at the same time entrepreneurship in the KIBS sector also has a significant role. In our last essay we survey the evidence behind the IPR boom in China and India, and its link to innovation. In terms of trademark applications lodged with domestic IP offices in 2009, the evidence demonstrates that, worldwide, China now ranks 1st and India 5th, while for patent filings China ranks 3 rd and India 9th. This performance is remarkable as both China and India experienced negligible demand for IPR protection as recently as two decades ago. The IPR trends in these countries are analysed in detail, highlighting the structure of patent and trademark demand since 1990 and breaking it down and analysing according to: (i) national/foreign origin of applications; (ii) technological (IPC) and trademark (NICE) classes; and (iii) the major individual patent users. We also evaluate the capacity of both China's and India's Innovation Systems to internalize the potential returns of this increasing demand for IPR. The insight attained finds that should both China and India sustain their current IPR growth rates, they will catch up with the most advanced economies within the time span of a few decades.
Esta tese apresenta vários ensaios focalizados nas diferenças regionais e nacionais em termos de performance de crescimento e inovação, abordando as temáticas dos direitos de propriedade intelectual (DPI), dos serviços intensivos em conhecimento (KIBS), do empreendedorismo e de outros factores que tradicionalmente influenciam a inovação. 0 título desta tese reflecte as enormes diferenças de performance económica entre regiões e países de todo o mundo. Ao longo dos cinco ensaios desta tese procuramos realizar os factores mais importantes que poderão contribuir para a redução ou alargamento do fosso existente em temos de desempenho económico. No primeiro ensaio, argumentamos que o "elo perdido" entre o crescimento económico e a produção de conhecimento e o empreendedorismo, que permite a transformação de novo conhecimento em conhecimento economicamente útil, gerando oportunidades de mercado. Após a discussão da validade deste conceito adoptamos um modelo recentemente proposto e demonstramos a articulação entre crescimento regional e empreendedorismo, nas regiões NUTS 2 do sul da Europa (Itália, Portugal e Espanha). Após uma análise econométrica robusta, concluimos que qualquer política destinada a fomentar crescimento económico tem de contemplar a promoção de empreendedorismo, pois as novas empresas são instrumentos imprescindiveis na exploração do conhecimento. 0 empreendedorismo tem um papel fundamental no estreitamento do fosso entre regiões ricas e pobres, no sul da Europa. 0 segundo ensaio propõe uma metodologia para a construção de urn ranking de medição do desempenho da inovação para as 30 regiões NUTS 3 em Portugal. Esta medida e baseada na agregação de um conjunto de indicadores colectivamente compreendidos como representantes do fenómeno de "inovação". A tarefa proposta tem relevância em dois campos distintos: em termos metodológicos permite definir o que poderia ser aceite como inovação dentro dessas unidades territoriais e, em termos pniticos, identifica o posicionamento relativo de cada unidade territorial. Em termos gerais, podemos concluir que a inova9ao em Portugal se congrega em tomo dos principais centros urbanos /industriais (Grande Lisboa e Grande Porto). No entanto, existem regioes onde foram feitos esforços em termos de I&D e produção de alta tecnologia, e que se revelam como casos de sucesso, onde e possível antever uma possivel dinamica de "catching-up" (Alentejo Centrale Baixo Vouga). No terceiro ensaio seguimos várias correntes da literatura cientifica na area da inovação para construir urna função de produção de conhecimento/ inovação baseada em vários factores determinantes, tais como grau de urbanização, intensidade de investigação e desenvolvimento (I&D), a estrutura de recursos humanos, a qualidade das instituições e a existencia de KIBS e empresas de tecnologia. Como variavel dependente usamos uma medida composta de inovação (número de patentes e de marcas europeias), enfatizando as diferentes formas de capital intelectual como o resultado do processo de inovação. Esta análise e feita nurna escala regional, ao nivel de NUTS 3, em Portugal. Esta esfera de analise permite discernir a importância de factores locais na inovação e, mais especificamente, o papel do empreendedorismo KIBS como urn factor chave na geração de inovação e como um meio de transformar o conhecimento em inovações comercializaveis (dai a importancia deter marcas como output da nossa função). Usando várias abordagens econometricas robustas confirmamos a importância do empreendedorismo KIBS, do capital humano, do posicionamento geográfico e da qualidade das instituições como os principais motores da inovação regional em Portugal. 0 quarto ensaio estuda os determinantes da inovação regional na Europa através de uma função de produção do conhecimento que utiliza urn conjunto de variáveis explicativas que reflectem varios factores ligados a literatura de sistemas de inovação. A fim de medir a inovação regional na Europa, construimos urna variavel composta, combinando pedidos de marca e patentes ao nível das regiões NUTS 2 em toda a Uniao Europeia (UE). 0 nosso estudo permitiu pela primeira vez uma análise das tendências de pedidos de marcas nas regiões da UE. Os nossos resultados mostram que a combinação de patentes e marcas pode ser apropriada para identificar a inovação que não e tão intensa tecnologicamente (como aquela inovação que e capturada apenas por medidas baseadas em contagem de patentes). Alem disso, a nossa análise demonstra que factores tradicionais (como a I&D empresarial, escolaridade e riqueza) tem um efeito estatisticamente significativo sobre a produção de conhecimento (patentes I marcas), e que o empreendedorismo KIBS pode igualmente desempenhar um papel significativo na geração de inovacão No último ensaio examinamos a evidência por detrás de uma "explosao" de DPf'na China e na Índia e a ligação deste fenómeno ao crescimento da inovação nestas regiões. Em termos de pedidos de marcas apresentados nos escritórios nacionais de PI, em 2009, a evidência demonstra que, a nivel mundial, a China ja ocupava a primeira posição e a Índia a quinta, enquanto que para pedidos de patentes, a China ocupava a terceira posição e a Índia a nona posição. Esse desempenho e tão mais surpreendente quando China e Índia registaram ainda em décadas recentes uma procura insignificante de DPI. As têndencias em termos de DPI nestes países são analisadas em detalhe, com destaque para a estrutura da procura de patentes e marcas desde 1990, dividindo essa analise de acordo com: (i) a origem nacional ou estrangeira de aplicações, (ii) classes tecnol6gicas (IPC) e classes de marca (NICE), e (iii) os principais utilizadores de patentes individuais. Avaliamos também a capacidade dos Sistemas Nacionais de Inovação da China e Índia para internalizar os retomos potenciais da presente procura crescente por DPis. 0 nosso estudo indica que tanto a China como a Índia, ao manterem as suas actuais taxas de crescimento na utilização de DPI, vao alcançar as economias mais avançadas dentro do intervalo de tempo de algumas décadas.
Descrição: Doutoramento em Economia
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.5/9237
Aparece nas colecções:DE - Teses de Doutoramento / Ph.D. Thesis
BISEG - Teses de Doutoramento / Ph.D. Thesis

Ficheiros deste registo:
Ficheiro Descrição TamanhoFormato 
TD - VHSF - 2010.pdf5,28 MBAdobe PDFVer/Abrir


FacebookTwitterDeliciousLinkedInDiggGoogle BookmarksMySpace
Formato BibTex MendeleyEndnote Degois 

Todos os registos no repositório estão protegidos por leis de copyright, com todos os direitos reservados.